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Questões de Concursos

Q929995 Inglês

TEXT III


STEPHEN HAWKING


    Stephen Hawking, one of the most famous scientists of the 21st century, died on March 14th, 2018. But his ideas on gravity, black holes and the Big Bang are the greatest legacy he left to the world.


Early Life and College

    On January 8th, 1942, Stephen Hawking was born to a successful family in Oxford, England. He was not the best student at fundamental or high school, but he was very smart. His dad wanted him to become a medical doctor, but Stephen really wanted to study math.

    Despite his poor grades at school, Stephen aced his exams for college. He was admitted to Oxford University, but they didn't have math as a major. So, he decided to study physics and chemistry instead.

    Stephen became a member of a rowing team when he was in college. After he graduated, he decided to continue his education and went to graduate school.


Graduate School, Marriage and Health Problems

    While in graduate school, he had some health problems. He began tripping for no reason, and his speech became hard to understand. His family encouraged him to go to the doctor. Stephen was diagnosed with a disease called ALS, or Lou Gehrig's disease, which affects the brain and spine. He was only twenty one, and the doctors initially gave him only a few years to live. Luckily, his condition progressed more slowly than is often the case.

    During this time, Stephen had a relationship with a woman named Jane. He said she and his work were his inspiration for living. Stephen earned his Ph.D. degree in 1965. He started to get worse, and eventually became confined to a wheelchair. Nonetheless, he and Jane married in 1965 and were able to have three children.

    He studied how space and time are related, including scientific studies of black holes in space and how they work in the universe. He also had a lot of success in his work as a college professor.


A New Voice

    In 1985, Stephen got really sick and doctors were able to save him, but he was unable to speak. He could only use his eyebrows to communicate. Eventually, he was able to use a special voice synthesizer, allowing him to talk by moving his cheek muscles and using a mouse pad.


Famous Works and Prizes

    His most notorious theory is that black holes can emit radiation; also known as Hawking radiation. He received numerous awards but never won the Nobel Prize.

    Stephen always enjoyed writing books. His best seller, “A Brief History in Time” made terms like the Big Bang and black holes easy to understand. Other famous Stephen Hawking books include: “A Briefer History in Time", “On the Shoulders of Giants” and "The Universe in a Nutshell". He also wrote many books for children along with his daughter Lucy. His famous books for children include "George’s Cosmic Treasure Hunt" and “George and the Big Bang”.

    His last work, submitted only two weeks before his death, reveals the universe will come to an end when stars run out of energy. However, his theory suggests that scientists will be able to find parallel universes using probes on spaceships.

In the sentence, “Despite his poor grades at school, Stephen aced his exams for college.” (paragraph 3), the underlined phrase means that Stephen
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