CORPORATE CONTROL AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE OF MARINE GENETIC RESOURCES
The prospect of the ocean generating a new era of “blue growth” is increasingly finding its way into national and international policy documents around the world and has spurred a rush to claim ocean space and resources. If economic activities in coastal and offshore areas are to expand in an equitable and sustainable manner, in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), progress is needed toward addressing multiple and potentially conflicting uses of ocean space within national jurisdictions, in addition to developing a consistent and transparent legal framework for the vast areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ). These areas cover 64% of the world’s ocean and 47% of the Earth’s surface yet remain poorly understood or described.
Marine organisms have evolved to thrive in the extremes of pressure, temperature, chemistry, and darkness found in the ocean, resulting in unique adaptations that make them the object of commercial interest, particularly for biomedical and industrial applications. By 2025, the global market for marine biotechnology is projected to reach $6.4 billion, spanning a broad range of commercial purposes for the pharmaceutical, biofuel, and chemical industries. One way to ensure exclusive access to these potential economic benefits is through patents associated with “marine genetic resources” (MGRs). Although the term MGRs has never been formally described, it suggests a subset of “genetic resources”, which have been defined under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) as “genetic material of actual or potential value”._(33)_. The adoption of the Nagoya Protocol in 2010 represented an important step within the international policy arena to define obligations associated with monetary and nonmonetary benefit sharing of genetic resources and their products sourced from within national jurisdictions. No such mechanism currently exists for ABNJ.
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BLASIAK, R.; JOUFFRAY, JB.; WABNITZ, C.; SUNDSTROM, E. e OSTERBLOM, H. Adaptado de Corporate control and global governance of marine genetic resources. In: Science Advances. Disponível em <http://advances.sciencemag.org/ content/4/6/eaar5237.full>. Acesso em: 07/08/2018.