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Advérbios de: lugar, modo, tempo e freqüência | Adverbs of: place, manner, time and frequency


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Aplicada em: 2010
Órgão: UECE
Prova: Vestibular

001       Among the five prizes provided for in
002   Alfred Nobel's will (1895), one was
003   intended for the person who, in the
004   literary field, had produced "the most
005   outstanding work in an ideal direction".
006 The Laureate should be determined by
007   "the Academy in Stockholm", which was
008    specified by the statutes of the Nobel
009   Foundation to mean the Swedish
010   Academy. These statutes defined literature
011   as "not only belles-lettres, but also other
012   writings which, by virtue of their form and
013   style, possess literary value".
014       As guidelines for the distribution of the
015 Literature Prize, the Swedish Academy had
016 the general requirement for all the prizes
017 – the candidate should have bestowed
018 "the greatest benefit on mankind" – and
019 the special condition for literature, "in an
020 ideal direction". Both prescriptions are
021 vague and the second, in particular, was
022 to cause much discussion. What did Nobel
023 actually mean by ideal? In fact, the history
024 of the Literature Prize appears as a series
025 of attempts to interpret an imprecisely
026 worded will. The consecutive phases in
027 that history reflect the changing sensibility
028 of an Academy continuously renewing
029 itself. The main source of knowledge of
030 the principles and criteria applied is the
031 annual reports which the Committee
032 presented to the Academy. Also the
033 correspondence between the members is
034 often enlightening. There is an obstacle
035 though: all Nobel information is to be
036 secret for 50 years.
037 A chapter in the history of the Literary
038 Prize could be entitled "A Literary Policy of
039 Neutrality". The objectives laid down by
040 the new chairman of the Academy's Nobel
041 Committee at the beginning of the First
042 World War kept the belligerent powers
043 outside, giving the small nations a chance.
044 This policy partly explains the
045 Scandinavian overrepresentation on the
046 list in this period.
047 Another period, approximately
048 coinciding with the 1920s, could be
049 labeled "The Great Style". This key
050 concept in the reports of the Committee
051 reveals the connections with Wirsén's
052 epoch and its traits of classicism. With
053 such a standard the Academy was, of
054 course, out of touch with what happened
055 in contemporary literature. It could
056 appreciate Thomas Mann's Buddenbrooks
057 – a masterpiece "approaching the classical
058 realism in Tolstoy" – but passed his Magic
059 Mountain over in silence.
060 In line with the requirement "the
061 greatest benefit on mankind", the
062 Academy of the 1930s tried a new
063 approach, equating this "mankind" with
064 the immediate readership of the works in
065 question. A report of its Committee stated
066 "universal interest" as a criterion and the
067 Academy decided on writers within
068 everybody's reach, from Sinclair Lewis to
069 Pearl Buck, repudiating exclusive poets
070 like Paul Valéry and Paul Claudel.
071 Given a pause for renewal by the
072 Second World War and inspired by its new
073 secretary, Anders Österling, the post-war
074 Academy finished this excursion into
075 popular taste, focusing instead on what
076 was called "the pioneers". Like in the
077 sciences, the Laureates were to be found
078 among those who paved the way for new
079 developments. In a way, this is another
080 interpretation of the formula "the greatest
081 benefit on mankind": the perfect candidate
082 was the one who had provided world
083 literature with new possibilities in outlook
084 and language.
085 The “pioneers" criterion lost weight,
086 however, as the heroic period of the
087 international avant-garde turned into
088 history and literary innovation became less
089 ostentatious. Instead, the instruments
090 pointed at the "pioneers" of specific
091 linguistic areas. The 1988 Prize was
092 awarded a writer who, from a Western
093 point of view, rather administers the
094 heritage from Flaubert and Thomas Mann.
095 In the Arabic world, on the other hand,
096 Naguib Mahfouz appears as the creator of
097 its contemporary novel.
098 Another policy, partly coinciding with
099 the one just outlined, partly replacing it, is
100 "the pragmatic consideration". A growing
101 number within the Academy wanted to call
102 attention to important but unnoticed
103 writers and literatures, thus giving the
104 world audience masterpieces they would
105 otherwise miss, and at the same time,
106 giving an important writer due attention.
107 The criterion gives poetry a prominent
108 place. In no other period were the poets
109 so well provided for as in the years 1990-
110 1996 when four of the seven prizes went
111 to Octavio Paz, Derek Walcott, Seamus
112 Heaney, and Wislawa Szymborska, all of
113 them earlier unknown to the world
114 audience.
115 The criteria discussed sometimes
116 alternate, sometimes coincide. The
117 spotlight on the unknown master Canetti
118 in 1981 is thus followed by the laurel to
119 the universally hailed "pioneer" of magic
120 realism, Gabriel García Márquez, in 1982.
121 Some Laureates answer both
122 requirements, like Faulkner, who was not
123 only "the great experimentalist among
124 twentieth-century novelists" – the
125 Academy was here fortunate enough to
126 anticipate Faulkner's enormous
127 importance to later fiction - but also, in
128 1950, a fairly unknown writer.
129 It is also realized that on the whole the
130 serious literature that is worthy of a prize
131 furthers knowledge of man and his
132 condition and endeavours to enrich and
133 improve his life.
134 The Literary Prize has often given rise
135 to discussion of its political implications.
136 The Swedish Academy, for its part, has on
137 many occasions expressed a desire to
138 stand apart from political antagonisms.
139 The guiding principle, in Lars Gyllensten's
140 words, has been "political integrity". This
141 has quite often not been understood.
142 The history of the Literature Prize is
143 also the history of its reception in the
144 press and in other media. Apart from
145 overlooking the changes in outlooks and
146 criteria within the Swedish Academy,
147 international criticism has tended to
148 neglect the crowd of likely names around
149 the Prize a specific year. The Academy
150 cannot have the ambition to crown all
151 worthy writers. What it cannot afford is
152 giving Nobel's laurel to a minor talent. Its
153 practice during the last full half-century
154 has also largely escaped criticism on that
155 point.
Adapted from the text by Kjell Espmark

The alternative which correctly completes the sentence “We learn how to speak ………. – and ………., ………., and ………. – from good literature, and only from good literature.” is

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