U.S. immigration law provides foreign nationals with a variety of visas to become lawful permanent residents (get a Green Card) through employment in the United States. These employment-based (EB) “preference immigrant” categories include:
Employment-Based Immigration: EB-1 Priority Workers
This preference is reserved for persons of extraordinary ability in the sciences, arts, education, business or athletics; outstanding researchers or university professors; and executives or managers of multinational corporations. This category is less costly and takes less time to complete than other classifications. Although this is the fastest way to get an employment-based green card, it is extremely document-heavy and the USCIS reviews this petition with a high level of scrutiny.
Employment-Based Immigration: EB-2 Advanced Workers
There are three types of EB-2 green cards:
− Professionals who hold advanced degrees
− Foreign nationals with exceptional knowledge in the sciences, arts or business
− Professionals whose work benefits the national interest of the U.S.
Applicants (with the exception of applicants applying for an exemption known as National Interest Waiver) must generally have an approved labor certification, a job offer, and their employer must have filed an Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker (Form I-140) with the USCIS.
This category has several stages that need to be successfully completed prior to green card sponsorship. This proves to be a lengthier and more rigorous process than the EB-1 green card.
Employment-Based Immigration: EB-3 Skilled/Other Workers
This preference is reserved for professionals with a bachelor’s degree (or foreign equivalent); skilled workers, including foreign nationals with at least two years of training or work experience who may or may not hold a degree; and other or unskilled workers filling a job that requires less than two years of training or experience. This category is the most common with a higher number of foreign nationals that qualify under this preference category and has a lengthy average approval waiting period of six to nine years.
(Adapted from: https://resources.envoyglobal.com/blog/employment-based-immigration-a-complete-overview)