Read the text below.
Read the text below.
Over the 19th century, since the rupture of the colonial statute and the beginning of the construction of the national state in Brazil, put the need of developing a literary historiography, able not only to justify the existence of a Brazilian literature, how to think and point out their characters and specificities. From Ferdinand Denis to Ferdinand Wolf, from Gonçalves Magalhães to Joaquim Norberto, passing by Santiago Nunes Ribeiro and Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen with the collaboration of many other, a historical-literary tradition was conceived with an important ideological role in the national construction. Collective construct, this operation involved many intellectuals and a decisive action of the state for a few decades.
This critical collection was re-elaborated in the last decades of the 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, by several other intellectuals, in their studies about the history of Brazilian literature, among them, Sílvio Romero, Araripe Júnior and José Veríssimo. Absorbing conceptions of the positivism, the naturalism and the evolutionism - especially by Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer and Hippolyte Taine -, their formulations are impregnated with notions of race, language and culture. Notwithstanding the determinism of analysis and elaboration, these Brazilian authors become a basic or even paradigmatic reference for literary histories, until at least, the middle of the twentieth century.
It was only in the fifties of that century, that these references were to be reworked and surpassed by Antonio Candido, in the book Formation of Brazilian Literature, in 1959. In this study, the author, starting from the previous historical-critical heritage and incorporating many of its elements, rethought the chronological and cultural frame of the emergence of literature in Brazil, that is, its decisive moments – 18th century (Arcadism) and XIX (Romanticism) - together with the establishment of a literary system.
Fifty years after the publication of the important study by Antonio Candido, it is opportune and necessary to rediscuss and redefine the historical limits of the creation or formation of the national or Brazilian literature, through a various reading about the process of the State and nation organization in Brazil. LEONEL, M. C.; SEGATTO, J. A. Organização do Estado e formação da literatura – Fev. 2009. Disponível em: . Adaptado. Versão nossa.
Choose the alternative that represents the correct time-frame from the Brazilian Literary Schools.