Read the text and answer to the question.
Empowering teachers to promote inclusive education, a literature review
It is important that assessment processes and procedures in ITE (Inclusive Teaching Education) are coherent, using a
variety of assessment modes, for formative as well as summative purposes (Teaching Council, 2011a). The European
Commission (2014) notes that prospective teachers are often assessed using portfolios, which might prepare them to use
this type of assessment in their teaching. Literature Review 25 The Agency’s TE4I report noted the need for assessment in
ITE to change in line with more active teaching methods. It stressed that across both academic assignments and school
practice there is a need for: ‘assessment for learning’ approaches that encourage student/teachers to reflect on their
own work and performance and […] formulate their own targets for improvement (European Agency, 2011a, p. 23). It also
noted the importance of guided reflection and teacher educators developing knowledge of students’ understanding to
provide appropriate challenges together with good models of inclusive assessment practice. Echeita (2014) mentions that
at a national or regional level, it is also necessary to set out clear standards for graduating student/teachers, allowing
them to monitor whether they have correctly learned the competences related to inclusive education.