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One day, babies will get DNA report cards at birth. These reports will offer predictions about their chances of suffering a heart attack or cancer, of getting hooked on tobacco, and of being smarter than average.
Though the new DNA tests offer probabilities, not diagnoses, they could greatly benefit medicine. For example, if women at high risk for breast cancer got more mammograms and those at low risk got fewer, those exams might catch more real cancers and set off fewer false alarms. The trouble is, the predictions are far from perfect. What if someone with a low risk score for cancer puts off being screened, and then develops cancer anyway? Polygenic scores are also controversial because they can predict any trait, not only diseases. For instance, they can now forecast about 10 percent of a person’s performance on IQ tests. But how will parents and educators use that information?
(Adaptado de Derek Brahney, Genetic Fortune-Telling. MIT Technology Review, Março/Abril 2018)
De acordo com o texto, um dos riscos do prognóstico genético dos indivíduos desde o nascimento seria o de
By Edna St. Vincent Millay
Love is not all: It is not meat nor drink Nor slumber nor a roof against the rain; Nor yet a floating spar to men that sink And rise and sink and rise and sink again; Love cannot fill the thickened lung with breath, Nor clean the blood, nor set the fractured bone; Yet many a man is making friends with death Even as I speak, for lack of love alone. It well may be that in a difficult hour, Pinned down by need and moaning for release, Or nagged by want past resolution's power, I might be driven to sell your love for peace, Or trade the memory of this night for food. It may well be. I do not think I would.
(Disponível em https://www.poemhunter.com/. Acessado em 28/05/2018.)
De acordo com o poema
I love my country, but I have no patriotic spirit and no national pride. What’s more, I digest pizza poorly, I eat very little spaghetti, I don’t speak in a loud voice, I don’t gesticulate, I hate all mafias, I don’t exclaim “Mamma mia!” National characteristics are simplifications that should be contested. Being Italian, for me, begins and ends with the fact that I speak and write in the Italian language. Put that way it doesn’t seem like much, but really it’s a lot. A language is a compendium of the history, geography, material and spiritual life, the vices and virtues, not only of those who speak it, but also of those who have spoken it through the centuries. When I say that I’m Italian because I write in Italian, I mean that I’m fully Italian in the only way that I’m willing to attribute to myself a nationality. I don’t like the other ways, especially when they become nationalism, chauvinism, and imperialism.
(Adaptado de Elena Ferrante, ‘Yes, I´m Italian – but I´m not loud, I don´t gesticulate and I´m not good with pizza’, The Guardian, 24/02/2018.)
Transcrevem-se, a seguir, versos de canções brasileiras e de um poema de Vinícius de Moraes. Assinale a alternativa que melhor exemplifica as afirmações de Elena Ferrante.
(Adaptado de https://www.teachersloungeshop.com. Acessado em 30/04/2018.)
Os dizeres da camiseta
We raise girls to cater to the fragile egos of men. We teach girls do shrink themselves, to make themselves smaller. We tell girls ‘You can have ambition, but not too much’. ‘You should aim to be successful, but not too successful, otherwise you will threaten the man’. (…) We teach girls shame – ‘Close your legs, cover yourself!’. We make them feel as though by being born female, they’re already guilty of something. And so, girls grow up to be women who cannot see they have desire. They grow up to be women who silence themselves. They grow up to be women who cannot say what they truly think. And they grow up – and this is the worst thing we do to girls – to be women who turn pretense into an art form.
(Adaptado da palestra “We should all be feminists”, 15/07/2009. Disponível em https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hg3umXU_qWc&t=797s. Acessado em 14/05/2018.)
O texto anterior reproduz trechos de uma palestra proferida pela escritora nigeriana Chimamanda Adichie em 2009. Segundo a autora, o fato de serem criadas para agradar aos homens faz com que as mulheres