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Supreme Court Expands Rights for Students with Disabilities
By Lauren Camera, Education Reporter - March 22, 2017. Adaptado.
In a unanimous decision with major implications for students with disabilities, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled Wednesday that schools must provide higher educational standards for children with special needs. Schools must do more than provide a ‘merely more than de minimis’ education for students with disabilities and instead must provide them with an opportunity to make "appropriately ambitious" progress in line with the federal education law.
“When all is said and done,” wrote Chief Justice John G. Roberts, “a student offered an education program providing a ‘merely more than de minimis’ progress from year to year can hardly be said to have been offered an education at all.” He continued, citing a 1982 Supreme Court ruling on special education: “For children with disabilities, receiving an instruction that aims so low would be equivalent to ‘sitting idly... awaiting the time when they were old enough to drop out.’”
There are roughly 6.4 million students with disabilities between ages 3 to 21, representing roughly 13 percent of all students, according to Institute for Education Statistics. Each year 300,000 of those students leave school and just 65 percent of students with disabilities complete high school.
The case which culminated in the Supreme Court decision originated with an autistic boy in Colorado named Endrew. His parents pulled him out of school in 5th grade because they disagreed with his individualized education plan. Under federal law, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), schools must work with families to develop individualized learning plans for students with disabilities.
While Endrew had been making progress in the public schools, his parents felt his plan for that year simply replicated goals from years past. As a result, they enrolled him in a private school where, they argued, Endrew made academic and social progress.
Seeking tuition reimbursement*, they filed a complaint with the state’s department of education in which they argued that Endrew had been denied a "free appropriate public education". The school district won the suit, and when his parents filed a lawsuit in federal district court, the judge also sided with the school district. In the Supreme Court case, Endrew and his family asked for clarification about the type of education benefits the federal law requires of schools, specifically, whether it requires ‘merely more than de minimis’, or something greater.
“The IDEA demands more,” Roberts wrote in the opinion. “It requires an educational program reasonably calculated to enable a child to make progress appropriate in light of the child’s circumstances.”
*reimbursement – a sum paid to cover money that has been spent or lost.
A depressão é um problema de saúde pública mundial. Ela se distingue da tristeza pela duração de seus sinais e pelo contexto em que ocorre. Trata-se de uma experiência cotidiana associada a várias sensações de sofrimento psíquico e físico. Leia o TEXTO e responda
Depression in Developing Countries
The National Institute of Mental Health defines depression as a serious but common illness characterized by prolonged periods of sadness. According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a diagnosis for major depressive disorder requires either symptoms of a depressed mood or loss of interest and pleasure, along with other symptoms such as changes in weight, fatigue or feelings of suicidal thoughts. We can better understand the global impact of depression by measuring it in terms of disability. When analyzed by the disruption and dysfunction it causes in peoples’ lives, depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Fortunately, today, many therapies for depression are highly effective.
Disponível em: https://yaleglobalhealthreview.com/2015/05/16/depression-in-developing countries/ . Acessado em: 08 set. 2017. Adaptado.
Na frase “We can better understand the global impact of depression by measuring it in terms of disability”, o pronome it, em destaque, refere-se:
Britain bans gasoline and diesel cars starting in 2040
Britain will ban sales of new gasoline and diesel cars starting in 2040 as part of a bid to clean up the country’s air. The decision to phase out the internal combustion engine heralds a new era of low-emission technologies with major implications for the auto industry, society and the environment. “We can’t carry on with diesel and petrol cars”, U.K. environment secretary Michael Gove told the BBC on Wednesday. “There is no alternative to embracing new technology”. Almost 2.7 million new cars were registered in the U.K. in 2016, making it the second biggest market in Europe after Germany.
Meeting the 2040 deadline will be a heavy lift. British demand for electric and fuel cell cars, as well as plug-in hybrids, grew 40% in 2015, but they only accounted for less than 3% of the market. Still, experts say sales of clean cars are likely to continue on their dramatic upward trajectory.
The car industry says that demand for electric vehicles will only reach a tipping point once they're cheaper to own than conventional vehicles.
The deadline was announced by the government on Wednesday as part of a plan to reduce air pollution. The blueprint highlighted roughly £1.4 billion in government investment designed to help ensure that every vehicle on the road in Britain produces zero emissions by 2050.
Gove said action was needed because gasoline and diesel engines contribute to health problems, “accelerate climate change, do damage to the planet and the next generation”. Roughly 40,000 deaths in Britain each year are attributable to outdoor air pollution, according to a study published last year by the Royal College of Physicians. Dirty air has been linked to cancer, asthma, stroke and heart disease, among other health issues.
The problem is especially pronounced in big cities. London surpassed the European Union’s annual limit for nitrogen dioxide exposure just five days into the new year, according to King’s College. The university estimates that air pollution is responsible for 9,400 premature deaths in the city every year.
The timeline for ending sales of internal combustion engines mirrors one proposed in early July by France. President Emmanuel Macron has given the auto industry the same deadline to make the switch to cleaner tech.
“We are quite rightly in a position of global leadership when it comes to shaping new technology”, Gove said. But the auto industry, which supports over 800,000 jobs in the U.K., is wary of hard deadlines.
Other countries have been even more ambitious than the U.K. India is planning to stop selling gas-powered vehicles by 2030.
The German car industry and government officials will meet in early August to discuss the future of diesel engine technology. Manufacturers are trying to avoid diesel cars being banned from German towns and cities.
Com base no texto, considere as seguintes afirmativas:
1. No primeiro parágrafo, a palavra em negrito e sublinhada (“it”) refere-se ao Reino Unido.
2. No segundo parágrafo, a palavra em negrito e sublinhada (“they”) refere-se a “electric, fuel cell and pug-in hybrid cars”.
3. No terceiro parágrafo, a palavra em negrito e sublinhada (“they”) refere-se a “conventional vehicles”.
4. No oitavo parágrafo, a palavra “we” em negrito e sublinhada refere-se ao governo da França.
Assinale a alternativa correta.
Question based on Text.
Adapted from: <http://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2015/oct/13/fighting-corruptionzombies-development-anti-corruption >.Access on: 03/11/2015.